SirToshi’s White Paper on Bitcoin Fundamentals (excerpt from the book ‘Silverfish’)
My investigation into Bitcoin
It’s early 2016. I’ve discovered that Bitcoin is already the greatest investment in history and none of my friends who work in the world of finance in London are interested in it, & continue to dismiss it. At this point it’s been around for 8yrs, I’ve not noticed any reports on the news or in the mainstream press about it & I’ve drawn a blank in all my usual lines of enquiry, which has never happened before. There is something strange here. The price appears to be holding firm & seems like it has risen in stages. I’ve noticed that it fluctuates on a weekly basis in a relatively consistent pattern…
I’m going to cut a very, very long story of my dive down the proverbial rabbit hole, short, in order to cut to the chase & simply tell you what’s down there at the bottom for the purpose of getting this story finished.
What’s so revolutionary about the Bitcoin White Paper is that it expresses the concept of how to commoditise data. This has never been expressed before. The best explanation I can give to what I mean is that the concept itself is like the concept of the number one. Numbers are said to be the only universal language. This is because the concept of one cannot be changed. It can be expressed in many ways through various symbols, sounds & words etc but the actual concept itself cannot be changed. The concept has been around from the beginning of time, it just needed expressing. The same applies to the concept of commoditising data.
To understand what commoditised data is you first need to understand what a security is in order to compare and contrast the two concepts.
To put it simply, a commodity is something that is ‘common’ to everyone.
A security is tied to a single entity and effectively cannot exist without it. So, to put it another way, a security has its value/worth secured by a single entity that creates & controls it. Therefore, a security is something that is NOT common to everyone.
The issue here is that data is man-made. It must therefore have a single source of creation that would have control over it, which means it is a security & not a commodity. Here we have a paradox: If something can be started by someone, it can also be started by someone else anywhere at any time, which means there could be an infinite supply. An infinite supply gives a fundamental value of zero, so how can data have value? I shall proceed to explain this paradox below.
The Paradox of the Centralised Starting Point
This is easier to explain in terms of the creation of Fiat currency. If the USA started a money, then China would never use it due to political policy, & if China started a money, then the U.S would simply never use it for the same reason. So how could you start a monetary system that two super powers would agree on using? Is this the paradox of the centralised starting point that Satoshi Nakamoto, the author of the Bitcoin White Paper, solved for which I think he deserves more credit.
Just like gold had always been in the ground waiting to be discovered, the Bitcoin White Paper was released on 31st October 2008 and contained all the information & instructions needed by anyone who wanted to start the network. According to Wikipedia the Bitcoin White Paper was posted to a cryptography mailing list. The significance of this is that that the majority of the members of this mailing list would have had the capabilities to understand the information contained within it. It wasn’t mailed to, for example, a list of local supermarket staff who most likely won’t have had a clue or be interested in the concept of cryptographic public & private keys.
(The date is 11th September 2021 — I’ve just learnt that Nigeria is now denying its citizens access to banking services unless they are double jabbed. I’ve also just witnessed a doctor explaining that the graphene oxide within the jab is what enables the spike protein to cross the blood-brain barrier within our bodies & the longer-term effects of this is likely to result in prion disease. According to a Google search Prion disease are a group of progressive and ultimately fatal neurodegenerative conditions).
The reason the Bitcoin White Paper was mailed to a cryptographic mailing list was to provide credibility to the networks starting point. If no opportunity had been provided for other people or persons to start the network then it could be argued that the network is centralised. A centralised network is fundamentally worthless from an economic, monetary perspective because it could be considered to be a security offering. However, by providing a reasonable amount of time for a group of competent individuals to start the network themselves it gives the network the opportunity to be a commodity as the starting point was ‘common’ to everyone.
In UK law a reasonable notice period is usually considered to be two months. So, for example, if a landlord wishes to give notice to tenants, they have to be provided with a reasonable notice period in order for then to be provided with a reasonable amount of time to make arrangements & find alternative accommodation.
The Bitcoin network was started on 3rd January 2009 by the pseudonymous author of the white paper Satoshi Nakamoto. I don’t think it was a coincidence that the network was started 2 months & 4 days post the release of the white paper, 2 months being the required reasonable amount of time period & 4 days for a little extra to be sure. I also think that the White Paper being released on 31st October 2008, being All Hallows’ Eve, was purposely chosen by Satoshi Nakamoto as a distraction to reduce the significance of the information contain within it. You see, to solve the paradox of the centralised starting point it is imperative that the network be allowed to grow organically i.e., without any central point of authority, control or influence. Indeed, it is the networks neutral growth & size that provide the network with its fundamental value as a commodity, monetary network.
However, there is still the problem that the network has a starting point. The White Paper was written in English and released to the western world but the authors pseudonymous name is Japanese. This effectively splits the starting point into two entities the White paper itself and the author. Japan, known as “The land of the rising sun” is considered to be technologically advanced, highly developed, politically neutral & located on the opposite side of the world in the far east. If the author had chosen a for example a Russian or Chinese name then suspicions would have been raised about his political motivations. If a traditional or common name from a 3rd world country had been used then suspicions would have been raised about how he was able to obtain the relevant knowledge to write the paper & why it was that he didn’t come forward to receive such academic acclaim & all the trappings of wealth that come with it.
Using a Japanese name gave the author & therefore the white paper credibility by proxy. Japan also provided a language barrier with a large enough population to enable his true identity to remain a mystery while the Bitcoin network grew. This illustrates the depth of thinking and genius of the man behind the pseudonym Satoshi Nakamoto.
As well have having neutral growth and size the Bitcoin network itself has to remain commoditise. If it becomes centralised in anyway it would immediately crash it fundamental value to zero.
I will now explain how the Bitcoin network remains a neutral commodity network.
How the Bitcoin network remains a neutral, commodity network.
There are five pillars to a neutral, commoditised, decentralised digital network that must always remain in place for the network to have any fundamental economic value. These are listed below:
1) Privacy/accountability — Chain of signatures so all users are equally accountable.
2) Fixed supply — So no one can control it.
3) Locked protocol — So no one can control it.
4) Infinite scale — So there is always new market to compete for.
5) Competition — An economic opportunity cost incentive for the market.
It’s important for a network to be private, not anonymous. Anonymous networks are centralised networks because there is nothing to hold the anonymous creator to account, which means they have complete control of the network. Anonymity is something you might seek to have in a toilet cubical, whereas privacy is something you and your partner might wish to have behind the bedroom door. Privacy means you can both engage with each other privately. You can both identify one another but no third party can interfere or gain any information about what you are doing. Privacy can be increased indefinitely so long as it doesn’t cross the line into anonymity where the required evidence to identify the person you engaged with gets deleted. Satoshi Nakamoto solved this problem in Bitcoin through a chain of signatures where each transaction is cryptographically signed using public & private keys.
Anonymity creates centralisation of power because those who create or add the anonymity have the power to do so without others knowing. This will always lead to corruption because it means that no one can be held accountable for actions that are either unreasonable or not fair. Indeed, it’s the accountability that keeps everybody safe. If everyone is accountable to someone there is nothing that anyone can do that no one else would know about. It’s this that keeps society fair & civil.
Privacy encourages good practice because it enables two parties within a trade to mutually benefit one another without a 3rd party potentially manipulating the situation to their own advantage.
Therefore, it can be said that: Privacy provides good practice whereas anonymity does not. It is upon on the foundations of privacy & not anonymity that Satoshi Nakamoto designed Bitcoin.
A fixed supply is essential so that no one can control or manipulate it.
A locked protocol is also essential so that one can control or manipulate it. A locked protocol means it is a permission less network that anyone & everyone can build on.
Infinite scale is required so that there is always new market for those who economically sustain the system to compete for. Without new market to compete for, those who economically sustain the system would simply start taking market share off one another and the market place would begin to centralise as the largest entity would eventually consume the entire market. “If necessary, the level of division (in Bitcoin) can be increased to 16 or more decimal places.” — Satoshi Nakamoto. “That’s all of global commerce times about x50.”
It is economic competition between the various entities that sustain the network that separates each of them & distributes the network. Competition must generate an economic opportunity cost & incentivise the competing parties to continually invest and grow their operations. To ensure this Satoshi Nakamoto implemented a system called Proof of Work (POW). Proof of Work is where competing parties (Bitcoin miners/Payment processors) add computing power to the network in exchange for the opportunity cost of receiving Bitcoin. This computing power goes towards cracking a Secure Hash Algorithm (SHA) of 2²⁵⁶, also known as SHA256. It is SHA256 that cryptographically secures our modern-day internet.
SHA256: I will try to explain SHA256 in layman’s terms
2²⁵⁶ is a huge number that I don’t know that name of. Someone told me it was 37 digits long (I’m not sure how correct that is, but remember this is a “fictional story”). SHA256 itself is massive, but like all numbers it can be divided infinitely. It’s this divisibility that can be used to adjust what is known as the ‘Difficulty Adjustment’. This difficulty adjustment can be used to set the likelihood of a certain amount of computing power, known as ‘hashrate’, being able to guess a randomly generated number, by chance, within a certain amount of time. This randomly generated number is a cryptographic number meaning it is non-numerical. This means you can’t simply count to it because it doesn’t have a name. The number starts will a line of zero’s so there is no way to systematically obtain it by counting. Literally the only way to get it is to randomly try as many combinations as possible in the hope that on of them is correct. This is like purchasing as many tickets as you can in order to win the lottery. The more Hashpower a Bitcoin mining operation can put on the network the more it increases their chances of guessing this randomly generated number, cracking the code, processing the Bitcoin block that contains all the transactions and being rewarded with Bitcoin.
Blockchain: I will now try to explain Blockchain in layman’s terms
Blockchain is simply the process data goes through in order to upload it to its selected blockchain network.
This is how it works: You create or select the data you want to upload & then probably press or swipe a button to upload it, just like you would a picture or message on a social media network such as Facebook or Twitter etc. The only difference being is that when you upload to Facebook, Twitter, YouTube etc you are uploading the data to a corporate server. That corporate server then owns that data & can collect all the data points in it to use in anyway is pleases. They mainly use it to invade your privacy and sell your information to aggressive advertises who target your specific needs and tailor adverts as they see fit to encourage more impulsive product purchasing.
To upload to a blockchain network you locate the relevant platform of your choice online, for example www.JoinTwtech.com & www.GetRelica.com , & upload material just like you would if you were uploading to Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, Instagram etc. The only difference being is that when you press/swipe to send, the platform is connected to your Bitcoin wallet and it costs a small about of Bitcoin to upload to the Bitcoin network where it is permanently stored. This upload of data is private because the processing of the data goes through a decentralised, distributed network of processors that have no idea who you are and do not discriminate. Once the data is on the network you can then choose who you want to share it with if you choose to share it at all. The main point is that because you have paid for the transaction using a small amount of Bitcoin, you then legally own that piece of data. No corporation has any rights to it, they cannot use it to collect data points on you to invade your privacy & find out everything about you from how many pets & children you have to when & where you go on holiday. They simply cannot see it in order to do so, unless you share your public key with them that would then grant them access, which would be your personal choice.
The Blockchain process: I will now try to explain Blockchain process in layman’s terms
The moment you swipe or press to send to upload data the transaction is broadcast to the network. The Bitcoin network is built as an ultra-small word Mandala network. This means that as the size of the network increase the density of each link/connection gets closer & closer making it more & more efficient. The moment the transaction is broadcast it gets picked up instantly by the nodes on the network. Once more that 50% of the node detect the broadcast, which is instantly, the transaction is then immediately placed into the networks memory pool (mempool). The data is immediately valid because the memory pool is distributed & hosted by all the miners/payment processors on the network, which means it cannot be deleted by any central authority. Whilst in the memory pool the data is hosted by all the network nodes and is accessible because it’s on the network. When in the memory pool the data is collated along with all the other broadcast data and competed for by the various mining operations/payment processors. These parties then compete to build a proverbial block of data containing the data transactions in the mempool. The party who is able to build a block and crack the SHA256 security algorithm in order to load that chunk of data on top of the previously built block is then rewarded with the coinbase data of the block, otherwise known as the block reward, otherwise known as freshly minted Bitcoin. The data is then considered to be ‘on the blockchain’.
The block reward halving
Bitcoin is secured by an economic model. In other words, it can only exist through financial incentives. If nobody wanted to use the network, no transactions would be broadcast, no blocks of data could be produced, no coinbase data would be rewarded & no Bitcoin’s brought into existence.
If the network was centrally controlled there would be no need for a utility incentive because there would be no competition. A centrally controlled network would provide a product or service that would be sold & profited from. Bitcoin, on the other hand, gets its value from the utility it provides, which is the demand for data sovereignty and the ability for it to be stored privately and securely. Because the data used to pay in Bitcoin is fixed/limited in supply it means a that a market price can be applied to it. The price is then set by the basic economic principles of supply and demand. This data can then be traded for other goods and services & used as a medium of exchange, which is why Satoshi Nakamoto titled the White Paper; Bitcoin: A peer-to-peer electronic cash system. Cash being the most liquid form of money.
The Bitcoin block reward started when the first block was mined by Satoshi Nakamoto on 3rd January 2009 and contained 50 Bitcoin’s. This block reward is programmed to be cut in half every 210,000 blocks. Satoshi worked out that the optimum amount of time for blocks to be propagated from within the mempool was approximately 10 minutes. This would allow for the creation of enough SHA256 combinations to provide the network with sufficient cryptographic security & allow for the range of required difficulty adjustments as hashrate came on & off the network.
The block reward halving means that if the price of Bitcoin does not increase over time then the network will eventually fail as miners will no longer be able to economically sustain the running costs of their mining operations. It also means that at some point it would be more economical to purchase smaller amounts of Bitcoin than it would to mine it due to the increasing costs involved in mining. This then creates a growing market demand as more and more people want to purchase Bitcoin, and the reason they would want to purchase Bitcoin is so they can upload their data onto the Bitcoin network in order to have sovereignty over it and not have to worry about it being cracked, hacked, altered, changed, lost or deleted. They would also want to purchase Bitcoin in order to use it as a medium of exchange. Because Bitcoin is fixed in supply the market price should increase over time as it became more valuable to more people who wish to store their data securely & privately on a network that provided them with sovereignty over it. As the price increases it provides increased value for money over other good & services, which is an incentive to purchase even more Bitcoin.
Each transaction of Bitcoin costs a small micropayment in Bitcoin & as the volume of transactions increases so should the total amount of fees from the increasing volume of transactions. It’s this volume of micro-payments that should eventually surpass the block reward as it continues to get cut in half every 210,000 blocks. Once Bitcoin miners/payment processors can economically sustain their operations through these transaction processing fees the system will then become an economically self-sustaining system. The world will at last have a commodity form of money, free from any centralised source of power & control that could potentially use it to gain & manipulate various forms of authority & influence that would inevitably lead to corruption & crime.
Ok, so I’ve solved two of the greatest mysteries of the modern age. Mental health and the key to love & happiness solved in 3 pages & Bitcoin explained in 7 pages. Both these topics come into play when tracking down the COVID19 conspirators as you’ll find out when we get into the investigation …as we’re about to.
Bitcoin chain splits
It’s January 2017 and the price of Bitcoin has risen from around $500, when I first starting studying it 12 months prior, to around a whopping $1000. I still had no idea what Bitcoin was back then & was just in awe of what the price had done. I hadn’t been following its price because I’d been busy trying & failing at starting new business ventures. It was only after an exhaustive, epic business fail that had resulted in me losing a substantial amount of money to a fraudulent business supplier that I decided to check back in on Bitcoin’s price to see if it had done anything. My eyes almost popped out of my head when I saw $1000 staring at me in the face, especially coming off the back of a business fail & substantial loss resulting in a waste of time, money & effort. Imagine if I’ve just put all that lost money into Bitcoin, I’d be loaded, having had a 100% return on my investment in just 12 months!
My heart starts racing, I need to find out what this thing is. I get on the phone to all my friends & ask: “Look have you seen this!?” I get the same response from all of them of complete dismissal. They’re not interested and tell me that it’s likely just a Ponzi scheme that they’ve not yet heard of. They suggest just waiting a while for it to collapse and that the forthcoming criminal investigation will reveal everything, who was behind it & how much money people lost.
I’ve always held my friends in high regard, valued & respected their opinions. However, this time around I’m going to have to go the investigation alone. How could a scam that’s been around for 8yrs suddenly 10x in price in the last 12 months and Google be reporting price charts for it? Surely someone, a reporter from a newspaper or something would have done some investigating on it? Also, someone somewhere must surely have lost some money at some point and would have reported it to the police or something? This doesn’t make any sense, so I continue digging like an online detective. What I find fascinates me. As I start to research, I begin to understand that Bitcoin is money, but instead of money that is inflated away into infinity through excessive money printing (Quantitative Easing is the political cover phrase), it’s divisible instead, so its value goes up instead of down. This is incredible, because it’s digital it can theoretically be divided infinitely so it could just continue and those who got in early would be “rich beyond the dream of avarice”!
To cut a long story short I eventually managed to find out how to buy it and purchased myself some Bitcoin. As I continued with my research and investigations, I started to become more confident in the technology behind it called Blockchain. The more I researched the more I found & the more my confidence grew. You can probably see where this is headed — Oh yeah, disaster, on a grandiose scale! Lol
The price of Bitcoin seemed to rise in line with my investigation. Every time I would discover more the price appeared to rise accordingly as if other people were doing their own investigations at the same time as me & buying in. Everyday the price is going up & up & every time I think “why didn’t I buy more the last time?” I’m trying to be sensible and not throw caught to the wind. Looking back, I could feel that positive cortisol was starting to flooding my brain. I started to become a little cocky and arrogant, not much, but enough to feel I could start to speak with confidence about Bitcoin & blockchain to other people & have a little one upmanship dig at my friends who were still convinced it was a Ponzi scheme. I was highly confident that it wasn’t a Ponzi scheme due to the blockchain technology behind it. I would listen to financial professionals giving their opinions on Blockchain technology calling it the 4th industrial revolution and labelling it as a “disruptive technology”. I was loving all the new terminology buzz words I was coming across for the first time.
It’s now August 2017 and the price of Bitcoin is now $4000. I’d quadrupled my initial investment in just 6 months & was over the moon. Bitcoin had started to get a mention in the mainstream press and the buzz was palpable. “Buy Bitcoin” hits top of Google rankings for term searches.
There appears to be a lot of discussion and talk, particularly on social media, of what’s being called a Hard-fork upgrade and chain split. I have absolutely no idea what these are at the time, they are simply new buzz words that I enjoy throwing out there along with everyone else who’s trying to find out what they are and mean.
One notable thing that I do understand is a change in the political narrative. There is a very influential group of developers calling themselves Blockstream who seem to have teamed up together that are ruffling a few feathers. It’s strange because they appear to me to be the first notable collective group that have emerged from the Bitcoin space. There members are a who’s who of Bitcoin & blockchain. They consist of developers, programmers, coders, mathematicians & all sorts of respected techie talent. However, their argument is that Bitcoin and its underlying technology of blockchain cannot scale & that Bitcoin wasn’t designed by Satoshi to be a peer-to-peer electronic cash system as stated in the White Paper. Instead, they are saying that Bitcoin is “Digital Gold” and that its true purpose was as a “store of value” & that you were “not meant to use it”. I could buy the Digital Gold thing & store of value, but for it “not meant to be used” I thought was ridiculous. If it’s not used it becomes ‘useless’ & if it’s useless it becomes worthless. Also, why would Satoshi spend his time creating something that was useless? There’s no point in creating something that’s useless. People only spend their time creating things that are useful. I can smell a rat & I’m pretty sure other people will too, but we’ll see what happens as time goes on. I’m sure all will be revealed.
As time goes on Blockstream announce that they are going to break the chain of signatures by segregating them. They describe this to everyone as an “they’ve labelled as Segregated Witness or SegWit for short, & that this will allow more transaction data within a propagated Bitcoin data block that they intent to keep restricted at 1 megabyte in data size. This is absolute hogwash. I can see immediately that they are purposefully wanting to centralise the network under their control so that no one other than Blockstream can develop on the network & anyone outside of Blockstream will have to ask for their permission. They want control. I’m not sure if their intentions are greedy, intentionally controlling, nefarious or if they are just stupid. Implementing SegWit will centralise the network and crash the fundamental economic value of all future block reward tokens to zero. It may take time for the populous to understand what they are doing, but that will allow people like me, who are ahead of the game, to move early & take advantage of Blockstream’s mistake. I can see that there are plenty of people who are confused about what Blockstream are saying and other voices in the Bitcoin space who are now starting to come to the forefront and argue for sticking to what the White paper defined Bitcoin as, which is a peer-to-peer electronic cash system with the ability to send and receive micropayments, instantly, anywhere in the world.
I personally doubt that anyone will go along with Blockstream’s suggestion because it is so stupid & makes absolutely no common sense what-so-ever, “not meant to use it”, literally shaking my head followed up with a face palm. However, an army of trolls seem to appear from out of nowhere on the internet & across all social media platforms defending Blockstream’s position, all repeating the same mantra and absolutely belligerent in their points of view. I’ve never really used social media for being publicly social. I only tend to share information & pictures privately with friends & family. Experiencing a social barrage for simply asking a question about Blockstream’s intentions is seriously intense. It’s as if the question isn’t allowed to be asked in the first place. A question isn’t greeted with an open dialogue as if it’s a request for information, the actual question gets attacked and then overwhelmed by others who dive in and troll the same way. I guess this is the phenomenon that people describe on social media as being trolled. It doesn’t bother me too much because so many of the replies are just name calling & stupid remarks & as Mark Twain said: “Never argue with stupid people, they will drag you down to their level and then beat you with experience.” Lol
I did try to rationalise with the odd troll occasionally just to try and understand their point of view, but I usually found the conversation would break down into nonsense and end up being a complete waste of time, so I eventually gave up.
Blockstream socially engineering control of the Bitcoin (BTC) ticker symbol
Rumour has it that Blockstream members & employees have been directly contacting all the various Bitcoin mining operations around world & putting their arguments to them and reasons why they should follow their newly recommended, alternative SegWit protocol. They have also been contacting all the various Bitcoin exchanges and telling them that because the majority of the Bitcoin miners will be following their newly designed, alternative SegWit protocol it will have the majority hashrate and should therefore maintain the ticker symbol BTC. I’m genuinely taken aback by this. If you fundamentally change a product, you should change the name so that people don’t get confused between what is the original and something totally new & completely different.
Satoshi Nakamoto laid out clear instructions in the White Paper about the principles that make up Bitcoin. The Bitcoin protocol and the 5 pillars of decentralisation are what make Bitcoin a commodity money. By implementing Segregated Witness and segregating the digital signatures on the network it immediately becomes a security offering and falls under the jurisdiction of the United States Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). All security offerings, no matter what, must be registered with the SEC so that the SEC can approve and register them to check for themselves that they are legitimate financial instruments with real world value that represent something. Without the laws governing the offering of securities the marketplace would be quickly overrun with snake oil salesmen making up all sorts of colourful stories about how great their Ponzi schemes were, how much money you could make & how safe your investment would be with them.
I noticed Blockstream used a scare tactic as a political narrative by saying that an increase in the block size would reduce decentralisation and that they intended to build a centralised side chain in order to keep the original blockchain small & capped at 1mb. The problem with this is that any monetary value transferred through a centralised, second layer, trusted third party means by law the third party must be registered as a Money Service Business (MSB) and all nodes on such a network must hold a Money Transmitter Licence. The reason for this is that there is no accountability within a centralised system & therefore it must be considered trustworthy and assessed by an authority in order to be deemed as fit for purpose. A second layer is no different to uploading data to a centralised, corporate server & that would take us back to Fiat currency again because it’s not secure, serves no purpose & has no fundamental economic value. Effectively nothing more than numbers on a screen.
You might be wondering why I’m waffling on about Bitcoin, blockchain & Blockstream etc when this story is titled: Tracking down the COVID19 conspirators. Well, you must understand just how big the conspirator’s scheme is in order to join all the dots so that the bigger picture can be seen. This is because all the evidence required for a “beyond reasonable doubt” verdict is buried beneath layers upon layers of corruption so they can never be brought to justice for what they have done. I can assure you that EVERYTHING comes down to money & power.
The Byzantine Generals Problem / Double-spend.
“The Byzantine Generals Problem is a game theory problem, which describes the difficulty decentralized parties have in arriving at consensus without relying on a trusted central party. In a network where no member can verify the identity of other members, how can members collectively agree on a certain truth?” Phrased another way: How can a transaction be trusted as being legitimate?
Satoshi solved this by constructing Bitcoin as an ultra-small world, Mandala network. This simply means that the network nodes pick up a transaction that has been broadcast to it instantly. The moment more than 50% of the nodes confirm/validate/recognise the same broadcast, it cannot be reversed. The reason this is such a big deal is because Blockstream implemented a system called ‘Replace By Fee’ that allows for transactions to effectively jump the queue & for slower transactions to be fraudulently double spent. When you have a fundamental understand of something you can see through all the lies and deceit. This statement applies to the rest of this story.